EOKA Members List : S
SAKELLARIOU, Alexandros, Admiral. (Based in mainland Greece, the retired officer of the Royal Hellenic Navy was GRIVAS's faithful friend and advisor, who encouraged him to secure enosis for Cyprus by providing money, political contacts and intelligence. He believed the Athens-end of Eoka had been penetrated by 'traitors' disloyal to the Greek Colonel for their political ends. He belonged to the Panhellenic Committee of Self-Determination for Cyprus. The Admiral, together with several other senior officers, had escaped from occupied Greece in April 1941 and chose to continue fighting the Nazis. A year later Sakellariou was appointed Chief of the Fleet - 1 battle ship, 6 torpedo ships, 5 submarines and 1 auxiliary - based in Egypt. )
. (He was killed 23.08.58) Born Lysi 1931. A farmer, he was an Eoka supplier and hit and run operative.
SALATAS, Efticheo (In 2006 he was still appearing on Greek TV chat shows, discussing the Island's history and his contribution to the Eoka conflict. He belonged to various mountain groups and working alongside RAFTIS and PALLAKARIDES. Efticheo was a native of Lythrodonta. While several of his family members are credited with participation in various EOKA operations, he is not.)
SAMARA, Xanthos (One of a seven-member Eoka gang in Akhna village, he was captured with the others on 28.02.57 by a patrol of the Royal Leicestershire Regiment. He came from Liopetri village, where two of his relatives died, trying to escape from 1 RUR.)
SAMARAS, Christos. Code-name: Xanthos.
Born 1926, he was one of the Liopetri gang, who, trying to flee a farmhouse in which they had been hiding, was gunned to death by 1 RUR in his home village.
GRIVAS had sent Samaras to the village to train the local Eoka members how to execute ambushes In the course of the battle, Rfn D D KINSELLA died in hospital from wounds received. For his part in the operation, Cpl Paddy SHAUGHNESSY was awarded the Military Medal. GRIVAS wrote: 'This was one of the most epic battles fought by Eoka.')
Rfn D D KINSELLA was buried in Wayne's Keep Military Cemetery with full military honors.
SAMARAS, Elias (After being captured, he provided 1 RUR with details of the hiding place that his brother, Christos, and others were using in Liopetri. After they were killed in a fire-fight, Elias was sent to the UK with a new identity and funds sufficient for him to start a new life.
Within 17 days, he had used up the money on alcohol and, riddled with guilt, returned to Cyprus, where he gave himself up to Eoka and asked GRIVAS for forgiveness. The Eoka leader ordered his immediate execution, which even his parents approved, and refused Elias's last request to say farewell to his wife and young children.
Nevertheless he implored GRIVAS to ''protect them and speak to them like a father'. He ended: 'Leader, I pray that God may protect you from all evil and lay his hand upon you, so that you may guide our shattered ship into the haven of eternal freedom. I also wish all members the peace and protection of God our Father. And one thing more: rather than fall into the hands of the enemy, let them fall glorious and honoured. Enlighten them to do their duty, and especially to do God's will, so that he won't punish them like me.' He was given the last rites and then shot dead.
SAMATOUROS, Pantelis (He hid weapons in parcels alleged to contain books so that they could clear Customs in Cyprus.)
SAMOURIDES, Andreas (Born Limassol in 1933. He provided hideouts in the port city. He was interned.)
SAMPSON, Nicos. (Born Nikos Georgiadis in Ammochostos, he changed his last name in order to distinguish him from others who bore the family name. He was appointed President on 15 July 1974 following the Eoka-B instigated coup that toppled MAKARIOS and brought about the permanent division of Cyprus between Turks and Greeks. At his press conference on 18.07.74, Sampson demonstrated his emotional instability and lack of knowledge in front of international television cameras and scores of journalists.
British correspondents noted his record as the killer of several British soldiers in 'Murder Mile' - Ledra Street - during the Eoka conflict.
During the 55-59 Eoka conflict, as leader of Nicosia's murder gang, Sampson's victims included Surgeon Captain WILSON of 1 RHG, shot dead as he was returning home after attending a seriously ill Greek Cypriot woman. Sampson also claimed the Ledra Street murders of UK Police Unit members Sgt H B CARTER and Sgt C J THOROUGHGOOD on 28.09.56. He lost favor later, when, on 16.11.56, he shot dead Angus McDONALD, a journalist who had recently joined Charles FOLEY at the Times of Cyprus, a newspaper, nick-named the Eoka Times by British officers. GRIVAS ordered Sampson never to kill again on his own initiative. McDonald was his last victim before the Island's independence.
Although caught and sentenced to death, Governor HARDING granted him clemency. Sampson's sentence was converted to life imprisonment to be served in Britain. He was released in 1959 when terms for the independence of Cyprus were agreed.
Some observers at the time believed that Sampson's acquittal for murder and the next scheduled hanging commuted, led the security forces to think their efforts and time to bring terrorists to justice was being wasted and that as a consequence an unspoken 'shoot to kill' policy was instituted. This opinion is supported by the fact that subsequently prisoners were never taken during a firefight.
On his return to the Island in 1960, Sampson published and edited Machi, an extreme right-wing nationalist and anti-Turkish newspaper.
Sampson was arrested for the first time on 15.12.55 when 2 Royal Inniskillings put down a student riot in Famagusta. He received a two-month prison sentence during which he joined Eoka. GRIVAS praised Sampson's back-shooting gang in Nicosia for doing 'much courageous work'.
(Ioannis KASOULIDES, a Greek Cypriot presidential candidate in the 2008 elections, speaks glowingly about Sampson. 'Everyone has an obligation to recognise the man's faith and determination, his heroism and love of country, the self-denial of the fighter,' he says. 'Nicos Sampson could not stay on the sidelines, during the difficult years of the Turkish Cypriot mutiny and their armed uprising. Again he organised groups to protect the unarmed population which was at the mercy of the mob in Omorphita.' He forgets Sampson received 20 years' imprisonment from Greek Cypriots themselves for attempting to overthrow their elected president, Archbishop MAKARIOS, in 1974.
(Sampson died from cancer in Nicosia on 09.05.01. His son is a member of the parliament in Nicosia.)
SANGARIDES, Costas. (Sgt Jack TAYLOR arrested the Eoka suspect in bed at his home in Eylanya village, based on information given by Greek Cypriot informer 'Christos'.)
SANTAMAS, Lyssos (He was caught between his left wing attachments to AKEL and his support for Eoka and Enosis.)
SAVVA, Georghios (There were 11 Eoka members with this name).
SAVVIDES, Andreas. (He was GRIVAS's nephew and 'The Leader' expressed concern for his safety when the British arrested and took him away for interrogation on 19.05.56)
SAVVIDES, Christakis (He provided food to the 'safe' houses in the Limassol area.)
SAVVIDES, Emmanuel (Arms courier between Athens/Limassol for Eoka. Not considered an heroic figure)
SAVVIDES, Manolis (He operated in Limassol-Episkopi-Akrotiri area. The British broke up his arms-smuggling network in December 1956 and he was arrested with Andreas PAPADOPOULOS and businessman Dafnis PANAYIDES. Earlier, in the summer, he had persuaded Marios and Elli CHRISTODOULIDES to provide 'The Leader' with a better 'safe' home. In his Memoirs, GRIVAS admitted his worries of the British counter-offensive. 'Trouble began when the Limassol smuggling network was broken and the EOKA customs team arrested, along with several important Limassol leaders, including three men who knew my whereabouts,' he wrote. 'These were Manolis Savvides and Andreas Papadopoulos, who had helped to build the hideout I was living in, and Dafnis Panayides, whose house I had stayed at from June to September of that year. If any of them broke down under torture my life was in grave danger.')
SCHIZAS, G (1. Gaston Schizas was a Limassol Doctor who organized hide-outs and provided medical attention 2. Yiannis Schizas came from Spilia and operated in the H&R Spilia /Kourdalis area.)
SERVOS, Nicos. Code-name: Faust. (He was a Nicosia chemist, who guided a home-making explosives team led by Christos PAPACHRYSOSTOMOU, the Deputy Headmaster of the Panycyprian Gymnasium, the school attended by both MAKARIOS and GRIVAS as young students.)
SERAPHIM, Elenitsa, Miss.(Captured in December 1956 by the Security Forces, she was released from Nicosia Prison on medical grounds on 14.12.57. She had started out as one of GRIVAS's female admirers who threw bombs at military personnel. 'She was trained in the use of revolvers and the making of time bombs and in due course I appointed her leader of the whole Larnaca district,'
GRIVAS said in his Memoirs. 'She arranged sabotage at the Dhekelia base, damaging the new £1 million military hospital and other military installations. She also formed a guerrilla group and took personal charge of the Eoka arsenal in the town (Larnaca) 23 shotguns, 12 revolvers, 2 Stens.' As the Area Commander, she used many code-names, including Themos, Myron, Artemis and Philothei.)
SERVAS, Ploutis (Early AKEL member and official, he was onetime Mayor of Limassol; another of those Greek Cypriots with a foot in two opposing camps. Someone once observed if there were two Cypriots only, there would be three political parties.)
SHAKOURAS, Andreas. (Captured on 28.02.57 in Akhna village by a patrol of the Royal Lancashire Regiment.)
SHEITANIS, Andreas. (An Eoka Area Commander, he survived the conflict.)
SHIELES, S (Born 1939, he operated in Paphos and Kykko)
SHIPILLIS, Rogiros. (He operated in and around Agros village, part of the Pitsilia gang. On 25.11.58, British troops ambushed him and Savvas ROTSIDES. The latter was killed, but Shipillis escaped, wounded. He survived the Eoka conflict.)
SIMEOU, Panayotis (From Pachna village, he was killed 25 November 1958)
SIPHILLIS, Royeros (Born Agros 1939, he was a student mountain fighter in the Pitsilia area.)
SIVITANIDES, Stelios (A Greek Cypriot businessman who was UK-based, he supported Eoka with contacts and financial support.)
SIVITANIDES, Tasoulla (She was the daughter of above and married Louis Pilavakis, the London-based Eoka activist)
SKORDIS, Andreas (Born Agros 1938, he was a mountain fighter in the Pisilia area.)
SKOTINOS, George.(Details of his Eoka activities not known, but he was one of the convicted terrorists to receive prison sentences to be served in the UK. He is reported to have spent time in Wakefield Prison, alongside several IRA prisoners, including Seamus MURPHY, whose attempted escape on 12 February 1959 was thwarted.)
SKOUROU, Chrystalla, Mrs (She was given a 12-month prison on 22.10.57 for assisting her daughter Nikki ARTEMIOUS to allow her home to be used as an Eoka planning center and for storing explosives.)
SOFOCLEOUS, Andreas (Born 1929 in Lefkara, he was captured with 30 others at Ayios Yeoyios/Karaoglanoglu by troops of 1 Queen's Own Royal West Kents in an anti-Eoka operation in the Kyrenia Mountains. He was soon keen to assist his captors)
SOFOCLEOUS, Nicos (On 16.07.57 he was sentenced to death for the murder in November 1956 of Greek Cypriot J PELAGHIS. A month later Governor HARDING commuted his sentence to life imprisonment because of the killer's age. He was 18)
SOFOCLEOUS, Neophytos He was originally known as the 'cat's guardian' at Government House, where the 20-year-old had been employed by Governor Robert ARMITAGE in 1955. One of his special tasks was to look after Armitages' cats of which he became very fond. 'Benji and Poo were two lovely kittens. It was my duty to look after them and, believe me, it was the most pleasant duty I ever had,' he said later.
The Armitages left Cyprus in September 1955. Sofocleous remembered: 'On that particular day the staff was gathered at the main entrance to say goodbye to the couple... It was a very touching moment. All of us were sorry because they were leaving, and the girls were crying. Then the couple shook hands and said a few words to each of us. Sir Robert said to me, "Goodbye, my son, and thank you for everything." I said, "Goodbye Your Excellency and God bless you." Lady Armitage said to me, "Goodbye, Neophytos, and do continue to look after the cats, please." I replied, "I will do, my Lady, I like the cats, you should know that." Then she said, "Yes, I know that and thank you, Neophytos." Finally, I said: "Goodbye, my Lady, and I shall think of you often." After that they got into the car and they left. We were ready to go back to work, when we saw them returning. They went up to the telephone operators' room to say goodbye to the blind boys. It was a very touching moment, which I will never forget. And I shall remember forever that both of them treated us, not only as servants, but as human beings too.'
After the Armitages' departure, Sofocleous approached Eoka and was enlisted as a member of the hard core. In March 1956 he returned from leave to continue working for the new governor, Field Marshal Sir John HARDING. At Government House, 'he planted a time bomb under the gubernatorial mattress and hopped onto his bicycle, not to be seen again for several years,' Francis Noel Baker writes in his memoirs.
The bomb failed to explode and was discovered by L/Cpl P. WELCH of the King's Royal Rifles and Guardsman BALL of the Grenadiers. Taken outside by Lt Michael BUCKLEY, 1 Royal Norfolks, it was destroyed in a controlled explosion.
Sofocleous was caught a few months later in the Troodos Mountains, during Operation Bullfinch on 20.04.57, but was released in time to say farewell to Colonel GRIVAS in March 1959 with the signing of the London Agreements. Like many Eoka 'heroes', he was made a police inspector.)
Francis Noel Baker recalls: 'I next saw Sophocleous when I was having a drink with Polycarpos YORGADJIS, then Minister of Defense and the Interior, on the Terrace at the Ledra Palace. His personal bodyguards were sitting at a nearby table watching us.'"How's Sir John?" asked one of the minister's guards. "Please give him my kind regards." It was Sophocleous.'
SOFOCLEOUS, Takis (He died on 01.02.57 with George PAPAVERKIOU when their ambush of a military convoy failed and soldiers struck back.)
SOFOCLEOUS, Thasos (No details available at present).
SOFOCLEUS, Isychios. (Born 1932 in Lefkara, he worked as a clerk in the island's electricity department. GRIVAS described him as 'a youth of dash and spirit' when he was given command of a Nicosia a four-man murder squad in November 1955. One of the members was Renos DEMETRIOU. In December, the gang shot dead a British soldier amidst the crowds of shoppers in Ledra Street. Sofocleus also 'executed' Savvas PORAKOS, who ran a hotel near 'Murder Mile, who had been ruled by GRIVAS to be 'a British agent'.
The ill-starred PORAKAS at the time was dining Supt CHARLES WILLIAMS of the Cyprus Police, who was wounded from the hail of machine gun fire. On 19.01.56, the Sofocleus gang murdered Capt J LANE (RAOC), while he awaited transport to take him to work at Wolseley Barracks. Five bullets hit Lane at point-blank range. Determined to continue his murderous attacks, on 14.03.56 he shot dead Sgt Gerald ROONEY of the UK Police Unit and gravely wounded his Turkish Cypriot partner in Hippocrates Street. Sofocleus was eventually caught and interned.)
SOFOCLEOUS, Nicos. (Sentenced to death in February 1957 for the murder of John PELAGIUS in Limassol)
SOFRONIOU, Christos (Born 1938 in Galata in the Troodos, he join ed a hit and run group in Nicosia. He was high on the government's Wanted list.)
SOLOMONTOS, Antonakis. (A Royal Marine patrol came across his four-man gang in the Troodos on 03.11.58. They were called upon to surrender, but chose to engage in a fire-fight before escaping with the Sten gang of the RM patrol's leader, Lt D N SPURLING, who was killed in the encounter.
SOLOLOMIS, Christos. (Born 29.07.1942 in Famagusta/Gazimagosa, he was arrested by the British in 1958 and was held in various detention camps. In 1997, he was appointed Minister of Health.)
SOPHOCLEOS, Takis. (He was killed 07.02.57 in an army ambush in the Turkish Cypriot area of Androliko/Prodromi. It was his birthday. He was 16 years-old.)
SOPHOCLEOS, Thassos (Born 1932 in Kythrea/Degirmenlik, this former Eoka executioner and gang leader in the Kyrenia/Girne district, had studied Maths and Physics at Athens University. GRIVAS appointed him AFXENTIOU's successor in this area. He had particular responsibility for activities in Kalogrea/Bahceli and Ayios Amvrosios/Esentepe, with Photis PAPAPHOTIS and 24 others. Among their 'heroic' acts was the horrific murder of Special Constantable G T KARBERRY and his pregnant wife in a mountain road ambush near Akanthou on 8 July 1956. He was the main attraction at the 50th anniversary of the start of the conflict celebrated in Sydney, Australia. The 75-year-old was keen to share his memories from that period and urged his audience of ethnic Greeks to continue the fight as - he said - 'the national targets have not yet been fulfilled'.)
SOFRONIS - first name not known (A left-winger, he was shot and wounded on orders from right-wing extremist GRIVAS, but after recovering in hospital, Sofronis changed sides and enlisted in EOKA. To show his loyalty, he gained employment at a detention camp, where he helped prisoners to send uncensored messages to their outside contacts. He survived the conflict. Some believe he was a secret informer for the British.)
SOTERIADES, Antis (Born 1924 in Nicosia, he was an Eoka lawyer. GRIVAS arranged his escape from Camp K was so that he could take-over leadership of the Kyrenia gangs when Matsis was killed. Soteriades became an Eoka Area Commander and survived the conflict to become the first Cyprus High Commissioner in London. During the intercommunal strife in early 1964, carrying a pistol he stormed the British Foreign Office, demanding an immediate audience with the Foreign Secretary. He was politely disarmed and told to go away. He was later appointed the Cypriot ambassador to Egypt, where he became involved in a financial scandal. Since then little has been heard of him.
SOTERIOU, Kyriacos (He was shot dead in Polis after he attempted to evade arrest by racing through a military checkpoint on 14.05.56 No further details.)
SOTERIOU, Theophanis. (Born 1940 in Trikomo/Iskele, GRIVAS's birthplace, he was an Akrotiri saboteur. With Andreas VASSILIOU he helped cause considerable damage to RAF aircraft on 26.11.57. Soteriou joined Eoka while in his fifth year as a student at Limassol's Lanitio Gymnasium.)
SOUMELIS, Georghios (One of the more elderly hit and run operators, he was born 1912. He was caught and interned until the end of the conflict.)
(His group leader, Michalakis PARIDES, wrote GRIVAS: ' Today I lost one of my best young men. I am grief-stricken. Please arrange that he be buried in the way he deserved.)
SOUROULAS, Anastasios (No details available at present).
SPANOS, Nicos (He was captured at Omodhos, with GEORGHADJIS. Both were hiding under a fire-place, but rushed out once a fire was lit. From Pera, he was born in 1934. After his capture he was interned for the remainder of the conflict.))
SPANOS, Papastavros. (Served at Ayia Varvara Nicosia, this priest was an active provider for Eoka members in hiding.)
SPANOUDES, Nakis. (He was deputy Area Commander of the Eoka group in Larnaca. Some members of his group were convinced he was a traitor, given the code-name Odysseus by the British.)
SPHONGARAS, George (The Eoka bomber was convicted by Mr Justice JOHN of depositing a bomb which exploded in the salt store of the Kyrenia Customs House, but Sphongaras won his appeal against a 10-year sentence on 22.05.57, when the Supreme Court in Nicosia ruled his confession was extracted by torture while held in Kyrenia Castle.)
STAMATOPOULOUS, Archimandrite (A senior Greek Orthodox prelate, he was held with fellow Eoka suspects in Kyrenia Castle)
STAVRINIDES, George. (Born 1935 in Nicosia, he was a member of a Nicosia execution squad.)
STAVROU, Achilleas (Born 1934, he was a Nicosia-based terrorist who mainly operated in Argates village, where he was a section leader and in the Orines area, west of the capital.)
STAVROU, Patraclos (He was active arms courier Athens/Cyprus and sabotage instructor. He became PA to Makarios and entry to the Archbishop was only through him.)
STAVROU, Stavros (Operated in Fassoula-Paramytha area and survived the conflict)
STEFANI, Vassos (Born 1939 in Mesoyi, near Paphos. No further details)
STEFANIDES, Yannakis. (In February 1957, after the Security Forces had successfully broken the back of Eoka's gang in Nicosia, Stefanides was one of the organization's young members left. He was made deputy leader of the new gang, but in the months to come, he displeased Polycarpos GEORGHADJIS and, more importantly, GRIVAS. Stefanides had failed to be on duty at required times, taken trips around the island in defiance of orders and had been sent to Larnaca to lead a group there, but returned to Nicosia without permission because he was not happy among strangers. Finally, he broke Eoka's rigid code by indulging in a love affair and refusing to give up the girl. For his disobedience, Grivas ordered him executed. The order was carried out under GEORGHADJIS's supervision on12.02.59. Forty years later, the Greek Cypriot Minister of Education, Ouranios Ioannides, admitted his fellow Eoka 'brethren' had killed him. Stephanides' father, a priest, claims 'one of the killers is in Germany and the other one in England'. After he had visited Archbishop MAKARIOS, his son's body was 'found' by the authorities 'within five days, buried in the area of Arona in Eylandja'. During the Eoka conflict, GRIVAS ordered 12 terrorists to be murdered because they had been accused of treachery, Stephanides was one of them.)
STOKKOS, Pavlos. (He was a Greek Cypriot police constable in the Island's Special Branch. An enthusiastic nationalist, his father had been prominent in the 1931 uprising against the British. Stokkos was effective in passing EOKA information about the Security Services' counter-smuggling operations. In early 1955, he warned GRIVAS that the British had penetrated EOKA by planting informers and district police commanders were collecting the names of gang members. In January 1955, he heard that the intelligence services were planning to intercept the Aghios Georghios, which carried a large arms shipment, but his EOKA contacts were unable to contact the caique on its journey from Greece to avert its capture.
STRONYLOU-HADJIMARKOU, Aliki (From Kyrenia/Girne, Aliki was born in 1939 and acted as a student courier, but was captured and interned.)
STYLIANIDES, Stavros (Born 1920 in Yialousa/Yeni Erenkoy, he died in Nicosia Hospital on 18.08.57. He had been taken there from near Episkopi with serious injuries incurred 3 days' earlier when explosives he was making for Eoka went off by accident. The terrorist's death was ruled as 'self-inflicted'.
STYLIANOU, Andreas (He was caught in March 1957 with several others, when they were ordered to surrender to British soldiers by Gregoris AXFENTIOU, their leader, with whom they were hiding in a cave near Kykko Monastery.)
STYLIANOU, Demetrakis. (A schoolteacher from Xylotymbou, he was a regular Eoka smuggler, bringing arms and explosives from Athens to Limassol.)
STYLIANOU, Georghios. (He was killed 04.11.56, his birthday.)
STYLIANOU, Ioannis (No details available at present).
STYLIANOU, Kyriakos. Code-name: Alphaios. (He was a member of a Larnaca gang, survived the conflict and continued to support GRIVAS after independence when Eoka-B was formed to oust MAKARIOS from the presidency. The picture here was taken in 1967 at an Eoka wreath-laying ceremony.)
STYLIANOU, Loucas. (The fifth member of the Eoka gang that operated inside the Dhekelia Military Base.)
STYLIANOU, Miltiades. (Belonging to a student sabotage unit, this 20-year-old was killed 07.03.57 on the Tala/Kissonerga road.)
STYLIANOU, Petros (From Limassol, he was a police collaborator who survived the conflict, dying on 08.08.05, aged 68. Captured by the Security Forces on 01.01.56, he had recently visited GRIVAS's new headquarters in Kakopetria, but did not reveal its location under interrogation when he decided to switch sides. He had been a Classics student at Athens University before the conflict.)
* STYLIANOU, Platon (He died on 04.08.58. He came from Vouni/ Limassol and was a storeman at the KEO wine company and brewery, suspected of funding Eoka.)
SOUPPISI, Ioannis (He was one of two terrorists captured when their ambush of a Royal Artillery patrol on the Larnaca-Nicosia ended in failure on 17.09.58. He and his compatriot Neophytos CONSTANTINOU, became informers and took their captors to where Eoka stores were hidden.)
SYMEONIDES, Phidias (He operated in the Lagoudera area and surrendered with three others to 1 DoW Regiment as Operation Whisky Mak neared its climax on 3 March 1957. Symeonides was 26 with a sallow complexion, gray eyes and dark hair. Their leader Gregoris AXFENTIOU, with whom they were hiding in a cave near Makhaeras Monastery, had ordered him. A very proud man, withdrew from normal life after independence and built a small house on the outskirts of Nicosia at Anthoupoli. He earned a bare living by working occasionally as a waiter at the Spanos restaurant in Ayios Dhometios. Asked why he did not seek any favors from the Greek Cypriot authorities - as many others did - for the 'services' provided as an EOKA fighter, he always replied: 'They know where I am and if they want to help me they know where to find me.' He became very ill and wanted to move to the clear air of the Troodos. Several days after his death, his body was found lying in the yard of his house, completely forgotten by the MAKARIOS Government.)
SYMEOU, Panayiotis. (Born Pachna in 1936, he was killed 25.11.58. He was vine-keeper by occupation and mountain gang by choice.)